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Because of the poor condition, piecing the fragments together has proven to be difficult.These lists have been used to create a comparative dating system for many sites and artefacts by comparing them with the cartouches found on objects uncovered.The first problem with Manetho's dynasties was that the Egyptians left few clues as to which dynasty followed which; they weren't interested in recording which dynasties ended in a revolution and which simply died out.More serious is that the original text of Manetho is no longer available; what we have are garbled editions quoted by two late Roman writers (Eusebius and Africanus), plus an excerpt from Josephus.The debate over when the Giza complex was constructed is still ongoing.
The Sphinx Temple apparently gave radiocarbon dates of 2085 BC and 2746 BC (700 years apart).
For those dynasties which left us almost nothing, like VII-X and XIV, Manetho is considered the most reliable authority, even though the lack of evidence has caused some to ask if those dynasties really existed.
This may be why Sir Alan Gardiner wrote that 'what is proudly advertised as Egyptian history is merely a collection of rags and tatters'.
Originally it had 58 cartouches, but now only 47 remain, running from Anedjib of the 1st dynasty up to Rameses II, again omitting the names of the second intermediate period.
Royal Canon of Turin - This papyrus is the best known surviving chronology of the ancient Egyptian pharaohs, but is also the most damaged.
While the Kings-lists are only able to offer us the sequence of Pharaohs, there have been two radiocarbon studies on the Giza complex which allowing us to put dates to the names on the list. In the 1980s several ancient Egyptian monuments, including the Great Pyramid, were radiocarbon dated.